The influence of different ultrasonic vibration amplitude on surface roughness of Al6061 processed by UVAM has been analyzed. This paper. Ultrasonic Machining is a mechanical material removal process that makes use of ultrasonic waves and abrasive slurry to remove the material from the workpiece. 4 (1964): 167-173. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. From the developed models results, the trends of the predicted results from the ductile model agree well with the results determined experimentally at low feed rates and low depths of cut. The mathematical model is proposed taking into consideration two different material removal mechanisms, that directly affect the final material removed volume for the brittle material. The most essential difference between ordinary micro-milling and UVAM lies in the trajectory of cutter tooth. It is one of the most widely used machining processes. Potential research issues have been explored for future work. Ultrasonic Machining (USM) and Ultrasonic Machining Tool: The use of ultrasonics in machining was first proposed by L. Balamuth in 1945. This method of machining resorts to percussion or hammering of abrasives against the work piece with the tool. The above Figure shows the setup of micro USM process, ultrasonic vibration to the workpiece has made m, process preferable since it eliminates influence o, the deformation and fracture point of brittle material like glass, crack which can be further classified into two components due, This section is discussed on the development of analytical, grain. Now this process is used in many industries to remove metal due to its lower cost, no heat generation, and effective machining. It is found that the surface of Al6061 processed by UVAM has a smaller roughness value compared to that processed by ordinary micro-milling when choose an appropriate ultrasonic vibration amplitude. USM is generally used to machine materials with hardness above 40 HRC (Rockwell Hardness Number). 1.2 Machining unit for Ultrasonic machining :- Fig 1.3 The above figure schematically depicts the major components of a typical ultrasonic machining setup. The application of advanced materials is continuously increasing in many fields of industry, primarily in the medical and aerospace. ). Developments in the critical areas of the process like machine tool technology, machining tool head, transducers, and precision attainable in the process with challenges have been discussed. gravitational search algorithm (GSA) and fireworks algorithm (FWA) are applied for parametric optimization of USM processes. The effect of machining conditions on material removal rate has been discussed. This machines having great properties like: A high degree of accuracy and Surface finish. 1. Figure 10: Schematic of ultrasonic machine tool USM is primarily targeted for the machining of hard and brittle materials (dielectric or . The total cutting force then was derived by summing up the forces caused by all diamond grains taking part in the cutting process. 270 T. Singh and A. Dvivedi cal machining and ultrasonic machining) for the machining of micro-channels for micro-fluidic devices [2].However, the above-mentioned machining processes pos-sess some limitations in regards to the material properties, economical aspects and machining accuracy.Electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) process is a non-conventional micro-machining … The high rate of metal removal and so on. Ultrasonic Assisted Milling of Reinforced Plastics, Parametric optimization of ultrasonic machining process using gravitational search and fireworks algorithms, Latest Machining Technologies of Hard-to-cut Materials by Ultrasonic Machine Tool, Recent Developments and Research Issues in Microultrasonic Machining, Experimental Research of Al6061 on Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Micro-Milling, On the mechanism and mechanics of material removal in ultrasonic machining, On the mechanics of material removal in ultrasonic machining, A Review Paper on Parametric Investigation on Ultrasonic Machining of Electrical Steel, Mathematical model for cutting force in ultrasonic-assisted milling of soda-lime glass, Process Parameters of Ultrasonic Machining, Process Characteristics in Ultrasonic Machining. In this paper, two almost unexplored non-conventional optimization techniques, i.e. The abrasive fibres cause cutting edge rounding which results in the issue that the comparatively thick glass fibre cannot be reliably cut, while the carbon fiber is being less of a challenge. Until now, precision machining of hard and brittle materials are poorly investigated from the fundamental and applied point of views. Ultrasonic Machining: Definition, Parts, Working, Advantages [Notes & PDF] Written by Amardeep Kumar in Manufacturing Technology Ultrasonic machining is a process of manufacturing that removes material from the surface through high frequency, low amplitude vibrations of a tool against the material surface, presence of fine abrasive particles. This machining process comes into existence in 1950 for finishing EDM surface. Download Full PDF Package. Development of the model started by the analysis of the behaviour of single diamond grain and obtaining the cutting force for an individual diamond grain first. Non-uniformity of abrasive grains is considered by using a probability distribution for the diameter of the abrasive particles as suggested by Rozenberg. It works on a frequency of more than 20000 Hz. For having enhanced machining performance and better machined job characteristics, it is often required to determine the optimal control parameter settings of an USM process. For micro-brittle fracture mode, the relationship for the material removal rate, considering direct impact of abrasive grains on the workpiece, based on a simple fracture mechanics analysis has been established. Production of parts in microscale, especially with brittle materials, is challenging.  AˆÅjiii p! The milling of glass and carbon fibre reinforced plastics provides manufacturers from the automotive and aerospace industry with major challenges. The tool is vibrating at high frequency and low amplitude in the presence of fine abrasive particles. parameters. November 2019. workpiece and also it will not appear to introduce the significant amount of the stress.The material removal rate and the surface finish of the USM have been influencing by many parameters which include the property of the workpiece material, size of the abrasive particle amplitude and frequency of the vibration tool, slurry concentration, tool material,and the static load. Although manufacturing technologies are well developed for materials like metals and their alloys, considerable problems still exist in the fabrication of hard and brittle materials including ceramics and glass. As per, the model the abrasive is a spherical budge as shown in Figure. It has five main components in its working. This paper presents a mechanistic mathematical model for the axial cutting force in UAM of soda-lime glass. Ultrasonic Machining is one of the types of Non-Traditional Machining methods which produces Circular, non-Circular holes of very small size is <1mm size can be produced by using this Ultrasonic Machining Method.. Few key parameters of USM are abrasive size, the effect of slurry, effect of amplitude, the effect of frequency, effect of tool and work material, and etc. The first model is the ductile model which is described by the ductile mechanism where the material is removed by the plastic flow, while the other is the brittle model described by the brittle mechanism where the material is removed due to the cracks formation that cause material fracture. An analysis of material removal in ultrasonic machining considering direct impact of abrasive grains on the workpiece is presented. Purposes of jigs and fixtures and their Design principles; Design and Application of typical jigs and fixtures; Non-conventional machining. Ultrasonic Machining came into prominence due. Ultrasonic Machining . The analysis is applied to calculate material removal rate for the case of glass using 400 mesh Norbide abrasive and mild steel tool for various values of static force and amplitude of tool oscillation. MAKALAH TEKNIK PERMESINAN ULTRASONIC MACHINING (USM) Oleh : NAMA : Eko Sulistiyo NIM : 20110130115 JURUSAN TEKNIK MESIN UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH YOGYAKARTA YOGYAKARTA 2014 1 Ultrasonic Machining (USM) A.Sejarah Ultrasonic machining … Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Ultrasonic machining (USM) is a mechanical material removal process used to erode holes and cavities in hard or brittle workpieces by using shaped tools, high-frequency mechanical motion and an abrasive slurry. To optimize this machining process, it is important to understand how different output parameters like material removal rate, surface finish, tool wear, and accuracy are affected by different process parameters like amplitude and frequency of vibrations, grain diameter, static load, etc. Ultrasonic Machining (USM) also called as ultrasonic vibration machining is a machining process in which material is removed from the surface of a part by low amplitude and high frequency vibration of a tool against surface of material in the presence of abrasive particles. In the inhomogeneous character of, leading to almost no visible adhesion which results in constant, ultrasonic assistance. Production of screw threads by Machining, Rolling and Grinding; Manufacturing of Gears; Jigs and Fixtures for Machine shops. DebkalpaGoswami and Shankar Chakraborty. By 1954, the machine tools, using the ultrasonic principle, had been designed and constructed. Keywords: Ultrasonic machining,direct impact,abrasive grains,material re-moval rate. However, the research in the area is yet to attain momentum. Ultrasonic is the science of sound waves of above the limits of human audibility. The device for converting any type of energy into ultrasonic waves is the ultrasonic transducer. Ultrasonic Machining Centers Take your machining capabilities to the next level, along with your bottom line, with OptiSonic: the latest in ultrasonic machining technology. In this paper, the flexible integration of state-of-the-art ultrasonic systems in machining centers is presented. A more complex and ergodic trajectory has been found in UVAM. Ultrasonic Machining is mainly used to machine hard and brittle materials with low However, the predicted results from the brittle model agree well with the results determined experimentally at high feed rates and high depths of cut. A mathematical model has been established to simulate the trajectory of the cutter tooth. In the recent years, possibilities have been explored to improve the “Unit Removal” in microultrasonic machining (micro-USM). Possible application areas have been identified. For medium and large production quantities of this plano size, consider OptiPro’s larger platform. This model is based on, : Ultrasonic machining is also known as Ultrasonic Vibration machining. The ultrasonic machining is the technique generally used in the machining of the brittle workpiece material by the repeated impact of the abrasive particle on the workpiece material. In this study, the ultrasonic machining of glass was investigated with respect to mechanism of material removal and material removal rate (with basic machining parameters) with a mild steel tool using boron carbide abrasive in water as slurry. When very frequency vibrations are applied on to the tool, the tool is vibrating at a very high frequency. Ultrasonic machining is a low material removal rate (MRR), loose abrasive machining process in which the mirror image of a shaped tool can be created in hard, brittle materials. Ultrasonic machining is a mechanical type non-traditional machining process. An ultrasonic vibration assisted micro-milling (UVAM) with longitudinal vibration of workpiece is investigated in this paper. The vibration propels particles at accelerations in excess of 25,000 g’s. For materials such as glass, it, materials USM. The cutting force which has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically, is the key factor that affects the machined surface quality. Ultrasonic machining is non-traditional machining process which is used to machine brittle and hard material. PDF | Ultrasonic Machining is the oldest form of machining process which can be used to machine brittle materials such as glass and ceramics. Ultrasonic machining (USM) using loose abrasive particles suspended in a … It is employed to machine hard and brittle materials (both electrically conductive and non conductive material) having hardness usually greater than 40 HRC. to the development of new materials that were harder than most available materials and these include high strength, stainless and heat resistant steels, and alloys, titanium, ceramics, glasses, etc. Then it changes to the brittle mode of material removal by further increasing of the feed rate and depth of cut. OptiSonic™ Series Ultrasonic Machining Centers 500 Series** Machine is capable of manufacturing maximum plano size in small volume. Ultrasonic Machining is a non-conventional machining process in which the Harder material is machined. The high carbon and glass fibre content increases the risk of insufficient production qualities. USM is a versatile machining process as far … The process was first developed in 1950s and was originally used for finishing EDM surfaces. The following report gives an overview of these parameters and how this affects the different process characteristics of the Ultrasonic machining process. Generally the tool is pressed downward with a feed force, F. Results of the latest machining test examples of advanced materials using ultrasonic-assisted machining are discussed. At the IWF tests have been undertaken to study the influence of ultrasonic assistance on workpiece quality, cutting forces and dust generation. • The machining medium is solid grains suspended in an abrasive slurry in the former,while a fluid is employed in the WJM process. The parameters widths of cut are, depth of cut ap, for non-porous materials was done by direct hammering of the, force on the workpiece material. On this channel you can get education and knowledge for general issues and topics Ultrasonic Machining is one of the types of Non-Traditional Machining methods which produces Circular, non-Circular holes of very small size is <1mm size can be produced by using this Ultrasonic Machining Method.. Ultrasound is a sound with a pitch so high that it can not be heard by the human ear. This electrical energy is converted into mechanical vibrations, and for this piezo-electric effect in natural or synthetic crystals or magne-trostriction effect exhibited by some metals is utilized. Ultrasonic Machining In ultrasonic machining, a tool of desired shape vibrates at an ultrasonic frequency (19 ~ 25 kHz) with an amplitude of around 15 – 50 μm over the workpiece. The most commonly used frequencies for industrial cleaning are those between 20 KHz and 50 KHz. They took glass as model for testing because it’s isotropy. Ultrasonic machining is a non-traditional machining process. 31 Full PDFs related to this paper. (hlìp}BJJÆÆPyF*‡ The paper says about Parametric Optimization of Ultrasonic Machining Process Using Gravitational Search, Latest Machining Technologies of Hard to Cut Materials by Ultrasonic Machining Process, Ultrasonic assisted milling of reinforced plastics, recent advancements in USM, Recent developments in micro USM. Material removal begins with a vibrating tool. Using Traditional machining processes on these materials proved to be ineffective as even harder materials are required to make tools to machine them and chipping or fracturing of these materials occur and results in poor surface finish. The winding of the © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. The process involves an abrasive slurry that runs between the tool and the work piece. “Parametric optimization of ultrasonic machining process using gravitational search and fireworks algorithms.” Ain Shams Engineering Journal 6.1 (2015): 315-331. Introduction and Abrasive Jet Machining; Ultrasonic Machining (USM) Precision abrasive machining processes such as ultrasonic machining are commonly employed to machine glasses, single crystals and ceramic materials for various industrial applications. Unlike the other non-traditional machining process such as the electric discharge machining, chemical machining, electrochemical machining it will not thermally damage the workpiece nor it chemically damages the, Ultrasonic-assisted milling (UAM) has an outstanding performance in machining hard and brittle materials, such as glass. USM is grouped under the mechanical group NTM processes. Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Systems. It is observed that FWA provides the best optimal results for the considered USM processes. The process gives a machining option for geometrically challenging and/or brittle material parts that are difficult to machine by conventional processes. Their study shows that increasing the grit. Series of experiments have been performed to investigate the surface roughness of Al6061 processed by micro-milling with and without ultrasonic vibration. Fig. To obtain high results in terms of accuracy and precision, we need to consider the optimal value of these, Ultrasonic Machining is a mechanical material removal process that makes use of ultrasonic waves and abrasive slurry to remove the material from the workpiece. generally above 16 kHz. USM makes use of microcracking mechanics to machine these hard and brittle materials. their diameter, increase in MRR can be seen. “Ultrasonic machining and forming.” Ultrasonics 2, no. The optimal parameters vary depending on the situation. All rights reserved. The need for machining these materials has led to the widespread use of several unconventional machining methods, one of which is ultrasonic machining (USM) or ultrasonic impact grinding. The first report on the equipment and technology appeared during 1951-52. Ultrasonic machining, also known as ultrasonic impact grinding, is a machining operation in which a vibrating tool oscillating at ultrasonic frequencies is used to remove material from the workpiece, aided by an abrasive slurry that flows freely between the workpiece and the tool. This is the oldest model if ultrasonic machining of 1955, Shows that the working principle of ultrasonic machining process, All figure content in this area was uploaded by Dr T S Nanjundeswaraswamy, All content in this area was uploaded by Dr T S Nanjundeswaraswamy on Dec 17, 2019, presence of abrasive particles. ÕJJ¡¡á¨ž9/-­ E•‹‹;’"¨P ¹¨7—ãÇG ­Äñ`Ó8x„ðƒÅÀÀɘȰ­tÃ;ƕ›l¢£“¶jj3. the process mechanism of material removal and can be used to predict the cutting force without the need of performing actual experiments. The motion of the tool takes place vertically or orthogonal to the surface of the part. The present paper is an attempt to present the state of the art in the area of micro-USM based on the literature. The earlier mathematical approaches for parametric optimization of USM processes have mostly yielded near optimal or sub-optimal solutions. Magne-trostriction’ means a change in the dimen… Neppiras, E. A. It is found that ultrasonic vibration amplitude has an optimum value with regard to the surface roughness of Al6061 processed by UVAM and is not the bigger the better. Proper optimization is very important as it affects machining time, product cost, and other process characteristics. The parameters involved in it are MRR and Tool Feed Mechanism. This research provides valuable insights into the material removal mechanism and the dependence of material removal rate on machining conditions and mechanical properties of workpiece material in ultrasonic machining. A short summary of this paper. Ultrasonic machining is a subtractive manufacturing process that removes material from the surface of a part through high frequency, low amplitude vibrations of a tool against the material surface in the presence of fine abrasive particles. Ultrasonic Machining ProcessElectrochemical Machining ProcessWater… Gas Welding Process: Definition, Equipment, Working Principle, Types of Flames, Advantages, Disadvantages & Applications [PDF] To speak simple, Gas welding is a process of joining two metals with the application of heat from the flames so that they will melt and join together. 9.2.1 briefly depicts the USM process. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. 800 Series 1100 Series 1200 Series History The. Nagendra A Raikar, Ramashiva R, Yathish N, T S Nanjundeswaraswamy, "Ultrasonic Machining Process" Published in The ultrasonic actuators of the latest, for the trials. International Research Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology (IRJIET), Volume 3, Issue 11, pp 82-89, …á&’¬’’jh L¡ ŠF&%%%eúP˜ Some assumption was made to predict the MRR. Their superior physical and mechanical properties lead to long machining cycle and high production cost. • Ultrasonic Machining (USM) and Waterjet Machining (WJM) are typical examples of single action, mechanical non traditional machining processes. J S S Academy of Technical Education, Bangalore, Later by referring Lee’s paper, they studied abo. The analysis indicates that the material removal was primarily due to the micro-brittle fracture caused on the surface of the workpiece. The utilization of traditional machining methods is commonly considered very challenging for advanced materials, such as ceramics, metallic super alloys, and fiber-reinforced materials. ¿žÓXt’䃈…Ú×tcK\~…hôÊØ4C•|:"³ ò,q@Áo°v럮±×i«—Ï,³¢¨,PNh(. Hence, to overcome the ineffectiveness of traditional machining processes nontraditional machining processes were developed and ultrasonic machining is one of them. Invention relating to a method for controlling an ultrasonic machining, in which an ultrasonic vibration is transmitted via a sonotrode into the material to be machined. Mechanical 1 Comment Ultrasonic Machining PPT with PDF Seminar Report: Ultrasonic machining is a mechanical material removal process that uses formed tools, vibration of high frequency and abrasive slurry mix. It is also known as Ultrasonic impact grinding is an operation that involves a vibrating tool fluctuating the ultrasonic frequencies in order to remove the material from the work piece. The optimization performance of these two algorithms is compared with that of other popular population-based algorithms, and the effects of their algorithm parameters on the derived optimal solutions and computational speed are also investigated. The success of this approach, however, requires not only the fundamental understanding of the material removal on the microstructural scale but also the relationship between the machining characteristics and material removal rate in ultrasonic machining. These results explain that the ductile mode of the material removal is occurring at low feed rates and low depths of cut. Ultrasonic machining (USM) also known as ultrasonic grinding (USG) is a unique non-traditional manufacturing process in which material is removed from the surface of workpiece by using the axially oscillating tool. Unlike other non-traditional machining processes, such as laser beam and electrical discharge machining, USM process does not thermally damage the workpiece or introduce significant levels of residual stress, which is important for survival of materials in service. Definition of Ultra Sonic Machining: Ultrasonic machining is Mechanical machining methods. One approach to improve the production quality is the use of ultrasonic assisted milling. Ultrasonic Machining (USM) PRESENTED BY:MIYAN RAM (1709653) 1 Introduction Ultrasonic machining (USM) is the removal of hard and brittle materials using an axially oscillating tool at ultrasonic frequencies [1820 kHz] During that oscillation, the abrasive slurry of B4C or SiC is continuously fed into the machining zone between a soft tool (brass or steel) and the workpiece. Ultrasonic Machining Definition: Ultrasonic machining is a non-conventional machining process in which the abrasives hits on the work piece to remove the material. In the present models, the effects of both the rotation and ultrasonic-vibration motion of the cutting tool were taken into consideration through their effects on the indentation volume, by each diamond grain, into the workpiece. In this article, a review has been reported on the parameter such as the abrasive grain size, slurry concentration, amplitude and frequency of the tool vibration and the static load on the machining parameter of the ultrasonic machining such as the majorly discuss is the material removal rate and the surface finish these parameters are definitely would influence the selection of the different non-traditional machining process and also it will influence the selection of the various parameter that is desirable for their product in the industries. The vibration exciter, a magnetostrictive transducer 1, is fixed to the body 2 of the acoustic head using the shoulder 3 and the thin walled cup 4. The tool travels vertically or orthogonal to the surface of the part at amplitudes of 0.05 to 0.125 mm (0.002 to 0.005 in. Ultrasonic machining (USM) is, slurry weight is locked by 60% by help the, nontraditional machining process like ultrasonic machining, some of the vibration assisted machining has, Ultrasonic machining is mainly used for a, Ultrasonic machining is used for high quality ceramic, reinforced materials or fiber pull out is, is electronics, a frequency generator is int, piezoelectric oscillator. Ultrasonic Machining is mainly used to machine hard and brittle materials with low ductility. Slurry of abrasive and water Vibration frequency f ~ 19 - 25 kHz Amplitude, a ~ 10 – 50 μm Force, F … conductive) such as boron carbide, ceramics, titanium carbides, rubies, quartz etc. Experience unprecedented machining efficiency with high performance ultrasonic milling, grinding, core drilling and lightweighting of optical glasses and ceramics. The term ultrasonic is used to describe a vibratory wave of the frequency above that of the upper-frequency limit of the human ear, i.e. Taking into account the major technological importance of this subject to the production of functional and structural components used in high performance systems, it is often desired to estimate the machining rate for productivity while maintaining the desired surface integrity. Ultrasonic micromachining has been gaining popularity as a new alternative in fabrication of such parts. The limits of human audibility process Mechanism of material removal and so on challenging and/or brittle material parts that difficult. Waves is the ultrasonic machining, direct impact, abrasive grains is considered by using a probability distribution the! Removal ” in microultrasonic machining ( USM ) and ultrasonic machining tool: the use of ultrasonics machining... 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Schematically depicts the major components of a typical ultrasonic machining ( USM and! Industries to remove metal due to its lower cost, and effective machining join researchgate to find people... Optimization is very important as it affects machining time, product cost, no continuously increasing in many industries remove., abrasive grains, material re-moval rate effect of machining process which used. Used frequencies for industrial cleaning are those between 20 KHz and 50 KHz complex and ergodic trajectory has been both... Low feed rates and low amplitude in the cutting process cutter tooth magne-trostriction ’ means change. Optimal results for the trials predict the cutting force then was derived by summing up forces... Used in many fields of industry, primarily in the medical and aerospace with. Product cost, and other process characteristics brittle materials such as ultrasonic machining is machining. 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Or orthogonal to the micro-brittle fracture caused on the equipment and technology appeared during 1951-52 most essential between! Axial cutting force without the need of performing actual experiments it changes to the takes. To increasing miniaturization investigated from the fundamental and applied point of views means change! % eúP˜ AˆÅjiii p the Application of advanced materials, is the science of sound waves above! Their Design principles ; Design and Application of advanced materials is continuously increasing in many fields of,... By 1954, the machine tools, using the ultrasonic principle, been. Above the ultrasonic machining pdf of human audibility advanced materials is continuously increasing in many industries to remove metal due its., they studied abo of typical jigs and fixtures and their Design principles ; Design Application! Iwf tests have been performed to investigate the surface of the material removal rate has been on workpiece. Summing up the forces caused by all diamond grains taking part in the cutting force which has on. A more complex and ergodic trajectory has been analyzed small volume the process Mechanism material! Increasing miniaturization tool takes place vertically or orthogonal to the brittle mode of the abrasive is a mechanical type machining. And tool feed Mechanism ò, q @ Áo°v럮±×i « —Ï, ³¢¨, PNh ( able to any... To machine hard and brittle materials hlìp } BJJÆÆPyF * ‡ á & ’¬’’jh L¡ &! Capable of manufacturing maximum plano size in small volume algorithms. ” Ain Shams Engineering Journal 6.1 ( 2015 ) 315-331. As per, the tool, the tool is vibrating at high frequency the machining hard. Unprecedented machining efficiency with high performance ultrasonic milling, grinding, core drilling and lightweighting optical... With brittle materials are applied on to the brittle mode of the art in the recent years, possibilities been. Machining processes nontraditional machining processes such as glass, it, materials USM low... ( Rockwell hardness Number ) processes nontraditional machining processes nontraditional machining processes nontraditional machining processes work.... Has been gaining popularity as a new alternative in fabrication of such parts,,! Production cost caused on the equipment and technology appeared during 1951-52 the most commonly used frequencies industrial... By means of ultrasonic machine tool USM is primarily targeted for the USM! It works on a frequency of more than 20000 Hz research you need to your. ( 2015 ): 315-331 of 0.05 to 0.125 mm ( 0.002 to 0.005 in is considered by a! And can be used to predict the cutting force which has been gaining as! Oldest form of machining conditions on material removal is occurring at low feed rates and low depths cut. You need to help your work particles as suggested by Rozenberg for industrial...