[356] In respect of female empowerment, some negative factors such as higher suicide rate, lower share of earned income, child marriage,[357] complaints of sexual harassment and limited freedom are reported. The state was also affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami,[156] and in 2018 received the worst flooding in nearly a century. The idol in the temple is taken out on a procession around the countryside atop this elephant. [58] Scholars hold that Keralaputra is an alternate name of the Cheras, the first dominant dynasty based in Kerala. The Geography. Among the three rivers in the district, the Neyyar (56 km or 35 mi), the southernmost river of the Kerala state, has its origin in the Agasthyamala, the second-highest peak in the Western Ghats. [454] However, the geographical insularity of Kerala from the rest of the country has resulted in the development of a distinctive lifestyle, art, architecture, language, literature and social institutions. info)) is a state on the southwestern Malabar Coast of India. In the fiscal year 2018-19, the nominal gross state domestic product (GSDP) was ₹7.82 trillion (US$110 billion). As Kerala is a coastal land it is bordered three sides by land and one side by the Arabian sea at the west. This phenomenon is locally called chakara. [255][256] Coconut, tea, coffee, cashew, and spices—including cardamom, vanilla, cinnamon, and nutmeg are the main agricultural products. As of 2016[update], the LDF is the ruling coalition; Pinarayi Vijayan of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) is the Chief Minister, while Ramesh Chennithala of the UDF is the Leader of Opposition. One of the earliest western traders to use the monsoon winds to reach Kerala was Eudoxus of Cyzicus, around 118 or 166 BCE, under the patronage of Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. The greater part of the Muslim merchants of this place are so wealthy that one of them can purchase the whole freightage of such vessels put here and fit-out others like them". "A Marxist Paradise For Women?" The origin of the Latin Catholic Christians in Kerala is the result of the missionary endeavours of the Portuguese Padroado in the 16th century. [240] Lulu International Shopping Mall at Kochi is the largest Shopping Mall in India. Kerala culture is a complete whole made up of a blending of various religions, communities, regional cultures and language variations. [548] The Indian Hockey team captain P. R. Shreejesh, ace goalkeeper hails from Kerala. Almost all of the local festivals in kerala include at least one richly caparisoned elephant. [253], Kerala produces 97% of the national output of black pepper[254] and accounts for 85% of the natural rubber in the country. There is a belief that, once a year during the Onam festival, Mahabali returns to Kerala. Another 113 fishing villages dot the hinterland. [514] These may be accompanied by chutney, kadala, payasam, payar pappadam, appam, chicken curry, beef fry, egg masala and fish curry. [460] A common characteristic of these festivals is the hoisting of a holy flag which is brought down on the final day of the festival after immersing the deity. [458] Over a dozen other scheduled and unscheduled languages are also spoken. It depicts purity and elegance. Previously, the gender preferences provided in government forms and documents included male, female, and other/third gender. In the 2013–14 fiscal period, the contribution has been estimated at a high of 7.75%. [380] Kerala has the greatest consumption of alcohol in India. Brill, Leiden Boston: 2010, 3: 92. The eastern parts are fertile coastal plains. The state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres (370 mi), and around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. The Noyyal River runs through Coimbatore and forms the southern boundary of the corporation. This area is densely covered with coconut trees. Kerala is home to the largest domesticated population of elephants in India—about 700 Indian elephants, owned by temples as well as individuals. The industry provides employment to approximately 1.2 million people.[564]. E., "Mappila" in "The Encyclopedia of Islam". "Legacies of matriliny: The place of women and the 'Kerala model'. It covers small area of 32 sq . The child marriages are particularly higher among the Muslim community. [173] Eastern Kerala's windward mountains shelter tropical moist forests and tropical dry forests, which are common in the Western Ghats. [162][163] The distribution of pressure patterns is reversed in the Northeast monsoon, during this season the cold winds from North India pick up moisture from the Bay of Bengal and precipitate it on the east coast of peninsular India. [325], Kerala's sex ratio of 1.084 (females to males) is higher than that of the rest of India and is the only state where women outnumber men. The districts which serve as administrative regions for taxation purposes are further subdivided into 27 revenue subdivisions and 77 taluks, which have fiscal and administrative powers over settlements within their borders, including maintenance of local land records. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State (excluding Gudalur taluk of Nilgiris district, Topslip, the Attappadi Forest east of Anakatti), the state of Thiru-Kochi (excluding four southern taluks of Kanyakumari district, Shenkottai and Tenkasi taluks), and the taluk of Kasaragod (now Kasaragod District) in South Canara (Tulunad) which was a part of Madras State. [534][545] Volleyball is another popular sport and is often played on makeshift courts on sandy beaches along the coast. The state has a coast of 590 km (370 mi)[135] and the width of the state varies between 11 and 121 kilometres (7 and 75 mi). [300][301] Major railway transport between Beypore–Tirur began on 12 March 1861, from Shoranur–Cochin Harbour section in 1902, from Kollam–Sengottai on 1 July 1904, Kollam–Thiruvananthapuram on 4 January 1918, from Nilambur-Shoranur in 1927, from Ernakulam–Kottayam in 1956, from Kottayam–Kollam in 1958, from Thiruvananthapuram–Kanyakumari in 1979 and from the Thrissur-Guruvayur Section in 1994. Katz 2000; Koder 1973; Thomas Puthiakunnel 1973; David de Beth Hillel, 1832; Lord, James Henry 1977. [368] However, Kerala's morbidity rate is higher than that of any other Indian state—118 (rural) and 88 (urban) per 1,000 people. The district is situated between North latitudes at 8.17°–8.54° and East longitudes 76.41°–77.17°. [344] In January 2016, Kerala became the first Indian state to achieve 100% primary education through its Athulyam literacy programme. The total annual average rainfall in the district is about 1,500 mm (59 in) per annum. [532] Unlike in many other states, the urban-rural divide is not visible in Kerala with respect to mobile phone penetration. [246][247] [262] The key agricultural staple is rice, with varieties grown in extensive paddy fields. The Western Coastal Plain – Extends from Rann of Kachchh to Kanyakumari. Physical Setting Kerala occupies a narrow strip of land, not more than 360 miles (555 km.) [299] Kerala's major railway stations are: The first railway line in the state was laid from Tirur to Beypore, with the oldest Railway Station at Tirur. New York: The Feminist Press, 1997. [547] Other popular sports include badminton, basketball and kabaddi. ", Jeffrey, Robin. [24] This contradicts the theory that kera is from 'coconut tree'. Most of the mountains are above 6100 metres (20000ft) are near the west of the occupied territory, like Mt Kanchendzonga. [219] Around 600 varieties[171]:5 of rice, which is Kerala's most used staple and cereal crop,[220]:5 are harvested from 3105.21 km2; a decline from 5883.4 km2 in 1990. [560] In 1986 the government of Kerala declared tourism an important industry and it was the first state in India to do so. Calicut International Airport, which was opened in 1988, is the second-oldest existing airport in Kerala and the oldest in the Malabar region. km.). The rivers face problems such as sand mining and pollution. [466] Processions often include traditional music such as Panchari melam or Panchavadyam. [210]:2 While having the opportunities that education affords them, such as political participation, keeping up to date with current events, reading religious texts etc., these tools have still not translated into full, equal rights for the women of Kerala. [27], The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala as Cherapadha is the late Vedic text Aitareya Aranyaka. [32], Kerala was alternatively called Kerala as well as Malabar. [130][131][132] His government implemented land and educational reforms. [first published in 2002; 3rd edn.]. [549] Greenfield International Stadium at located at Kariavattom in Thiruvananthapuram city, is India's first DBOT (design, build, operate and transfer) model outdoor stadium and it has hosted international cricket matches and international football matches including 2015 SAFF Championship. [292] As of 2013[update], Kerala had the highest road accident rate in the country, with most fatal accidents taking place along the state's national highways.[293]. This is believed to be an underestimate as private hospitals may not be reporting their figures. It is from October to November. [306][307][308] It is the first metro system in India to use a communication-based train control (CBTC) system for signalling and telecommunication. The … 1970; Leslie Brown, 1956. [28] Over 10,000 festivals are celebrated in the state every year. [228] On 1 October 2011, Kerala became the first state in the country to have at least one banking facility in every village. The highland regions on the east and the northeast comprises the Western Ghats. It is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. [199] With the enactment of Kerala Panchayati Raj Act and Kerala Municipality Act in 1994, the state implemented reforms in local self-governance. Yellowstone National Park - Yellowstone National Park - Physical features: Yellowstone’s relief is the result of tectonic activity (volcanism and earthquakes) combined with the erosional actions of ice and water. There are 10 major back waters in the district. ", p.18, * Bindu Malieckal (2005) Muslims, Matriliny, and A Midsummer Night's Dream: European Encounters with the Mappilas of Malabar, India; The Muslim World Volume 95 Issue 2, Varier, M. R. Raghava. [244] Kerala's 10% rise in GDP is 3% more than the national GDP. [237] Software giants like Infosys, Oracle, Tata Consultancy Services, Capgemini, HCL, UST Global, NeST and Suntec have offices in the state. [468][469] It is a local festival of Kerala[470] consisting of a four-day public holidays; from Onam Eve (Uthradam) to the fourth Onam Day. "Fort Cochin in Kerala 1750–1830 The Social Condition of a Dutch Community in an Indian Milieu." Factors, such as high rates of female literacy, education, work participation and life expectancy, along with favourable sex ratio, contributed to it. The mythological legends regarding the origin of Kerala are Hindu in nature. [461] Some festivals include Poorams, the best known of these being the Thrissur Pooram. Miller, E. Roland. Until the arrival of the East India Company, the term Malabar was used as a general name for Kerala, along with the term Kerala. It is also the first airport in the world to be fully powered by solar energy[314] and has won the coveted Champion of the Earth award, the highest environmental honour instituted by the United Nations. The region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. He won the war against the Devas, driving them into exile. V. Coastal Plains – Physical features of India: The coastal plains in India are situated parallel to the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. [8] The southwest monsoon, from June to September is the principal rainy season. [36] According to William Logan, the word Malabar comes from a combination of the Malayalam word Mala (hill) and the Persian/Arabic word Barr (country/continent). [367] According to a study commissioned by Lien Foundation, a Singapore-based philanthropic organisation, Kerala is considered to be the best place to die in India based on the state's provision of palliative care for patients with serious illnesses. Mappilas are but one among the many communities that forms the Muslim population of Kerala. [79][399][400][401] Saint Thomas Christians include Syro-Malabar Catholic,[402] Syro-Malankara Catholic,[403] Jacobite Syrian,[404] Malankara Marthoma Syrian,[405] Malankara Orthodox Syrian,[406] the Syrian Anglicans of the CSI[407] and several Pentecostal and evangelical[408] denominations. [215] A decline of about 300,000 in the number of emigrants from the state was recorded during the period between 2013 and 2018. Sreekumar, Vayalar Rama Varma, V. Madhusoodanan Nair, M.T. The third National Family Health Survey ranks Kerala first in "Institutional Delivery" with 100% births in medical facilities. According to the Constitution of India, Kerala has a parliamentary system of representative democracy; universal suffrage is granted to residents. S.C. Bhatt, Gopal K. Bhargava (2006) "Land and People of Indian States and Union Territories: Volume 14. Most of the park consists of broad volcanic plateaus with an average elevation of about 7,875 feet (2,400 metres). [5] These tertiary sedimentary formation cliffs are considered as a unique geological feature. (London, England: 1996) 128 no4440 30 January 14, 1999. [393][394] According to some scholars, the Mappilas are the oldest settled Muslim community in South Asia. [375] These propagate via gurukula discipleship,[374]:5–6 and comprise a fusion of both medicinal and alternative treatments. [86], Namboothiri Brahmins migrated to Kerala during the early Middle Ages. The backwaters cover almost half of the length of Kerala Source The mean maximum temperature is 95 °F (35 °C) and the mean minimum temperature is 69 °F (20 °C). The forests in the tail end of Western Ghats form the most diverse and unknown ecosystem in Peninsular India.[6]. In some coastal panchayats, median outdoor radiation levels are more than 4 mGy/yr and, in certain locations on the coast, it is as high as 70 mGy/yr. [223] Kerala supplies 60% of the total global produce of white coir fibre. [320] Kerala's coastal regions are the most densely settled with population of 2022 persons per km2, 2.5 times the overall population density of the state, 859 persons per km2, leaving the eastern hills and mountains comparatively sparsely populated. [33] From the time of Cosmas Indicopleustes (6th century CE) itself, the Arab sailors used to call Kerala as Male. Substantial administrative, legal and financial powers are delegated to these bodies to ensure efficient decentralisation. [298] Thiruvananthapuram Central (TVC) is the busiest railway station in the state. 8 June 2008, Padmalal D, Maya K, Sreebha S & Sreeja R, 2007, Environmental effects of river sand mining: a case from the river catchments of. 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