In all, 1,194 trees belonging to 614 species, 358 genera and 89 families were measured. Analysis of the extracts contained in Burkea africana heartwood is studied with the aim of better understanding the reasons of the exceptional durability of this type of wood. Annals of Forest Science, Jul 2018 Béli Neya, Mohamed Hakkou, Mathieu Pétrissans, Philippe Gérardin Select translation pop-up: Burkea africana Hook. Keywords: chemical constituents, leaves, Prosopis juliflora, synergism, pods. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of wood blocks was carried out before and after extraction in different solvents. In reality, only the heartwood of some species is durable, sapwood being in general easily degraded (Rowell et al. E and FN Spon, London, 2000, pp. Free and Open Access to Biodiversity Data. 0000011362 00000 n Burkea africana (Red Syringa) is a medium sized tree usually 8– 10 m tall, with a maximum height of 20 m (Coates Palgrave 1997; Storrs 1995). The indigenous wood types that we use: Peltophorum Africanum. Les extractibles du duramen possèdent des propriétés fongistatiques et antitermites. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. It is important to note that such contamination may also occur during wetting studies on wood using other contact angle measurement techniques. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Mathieu Pétrissans, All content in this area was uploaded by Mathieu Pétrissans on Oct 07, 2015, evidence of biocidal and hydrophobic properties, archive for the deposit and dissemination of sci-, entific research documents, whether they are pub-, abroad, or from public or private researc, Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy 1, Bld des Aiguillettes, BP 239, 5, (Received 19 September 2002; accepted 5 March 2003), contained in the extracts, these properties, extracts indicates the presence of fats, waxes and squa, throughout tropical Africa belonging to the family of Legumi-, nosae. Ziziphus Mucronate . The natural durability of five Cameroonians wood samples was evaluated using the European standard EN 350-1 with a slight modification. 6: t. 593–594 (1843). It has been claimed by wagon makers that the wood is the best for making hubs because it does not shrink or split. The results showed that the boron leaching is predominantly infl uenced by moisture content of wood during leaching, and furthermore by the concentration gradient (frequency of water replacement). 1 H NMR spectra of etheral extract of Burkea africana. The natural durability of the hazel tree of Gabon Coula edulis versus basidiomycete fungi was evaluated with native and extracted samples of heartwood against brown rot (Rhodonia placenta and Coniophora puteana) and white rot (Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus sanguineus) fungi. The synthesis of ethylene maleic anhydride copolymer containing pentachlorophenol (penta) and 8-hydroxy quinoline (8HQ) in N, N dimethyl formamide is described. Its wood is hard and heavy particularly useful for con-, structional work such as bridges, sleepers, fences or for tool-, handles. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. The rich colors and beautiful grain pattern would make most walnut gunstocks crawl away in shame. About 50 g of wood powder was. Fungal growth inhibition tests using different concentrations of extractives confirmed the fungicidal effects. First, when the veneer contacts the liquid, an instantaneous 'initial wicking' occurs. An initial wicking constant was therefore estimated for the different veneer samples based on measurements in octane. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of several groups of active molecules such as alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins and sterols and/or terpenes in the different extracts. 276–277. Part 1. Effect of the different extracts of the bark of C. edulis on fungal growth inhibition indicated better inhibition of the mycelium growth of brown rot fungi compared to white rot fungi. ethanol extracts present additional absorptions at 3350, 1600, responding to phenolic compounds which could be extracted, alkyl chain between 0.9 and 1.5 ppm, protons attached to alpha, oxygenated carbon between 3.5 and 4 ppm and ethylenic pro-, tons between 7 and 7.5 ppm). This was done to determine whether differences in the species and parts of the trees have significant effect on quantity of heat from their charcoal samples. Using such detailed analysis is necessary for a description of wood diversity by chemotaxonomy (Pettersen, 1984;Royer et al., 2010), mostly based on extractives and mineral analyses. An advantage is that high loading of penta in polymer can be achieved. Synthesis of ethylene maleic anhydride copolymer containing fungicides and evaluation of their effec... Wirkstoff-Restgehalte verkapselter und freier Biozide in hydrophoben Fassadenbeschichtungen. In some cases. Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier- Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H NMR(Proton nuclear magnetic resonance) analysis of crude extracts, NIST(National Institute of Standards and Technology) library and literature information indicated that P.Juliflora pods contain upto 6.3% unsaturated fatty acids such as hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, dehydroabietic acid, oxyhydroabietic acid, free sugars such as sucrose and glucose, mannose, galactomanans and traces of aromatic compounds. The wood is quite dense, taking into account the fast-grown characteristics of the stand, but the volumetric shrinkage is limited and the ratio between tangential and radial shrinkages is less than 1.5. La deuxième partie de l'étude concerne la caractérisation chimique des extractibles et l'étude de leurs propriétés antioxydantes et antibactériennes. From a 30-year-old stand in Sicily 6 trees were selected in order to analyse the natural durability of wood against fungi, according to European Standards, and the main physical and mechanical properties from clear specimens, according to ISO Standards. Kapirikamfumu Luangwa Valley; Jun 2007. ; This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Tropical Africa to NW. Beschreibung. The general objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of the little-known tropical woods of the Congo Basin, particularly Coula edulis, while looking for new biocidal products. pl. Burkea africana. Generally, no contamination was detected in the case of measurements on extracted wood veneers. ficult to exploit due to the poor solubility of the products. this may result in zero contact angle after a certain immersion depth. From first results the Atlas cedar seems to be a promising tree species from ecological and silvicultural point of view. 0000008201 00000 n Spirostachys africana can grow up to 18 m in height. 0000013194 00000 n The aim of this paper is to describe spatial variation in the woody plant biomass in Burkea africana savannas, and some other related southern African savannas. Burkea africana ingår i släktet Burkea och familjen ärtväxter. Germination studies on seeds of Burkea africana and Erythrophleum africanum from Kazuma Forest Reserve, Northern Botswana, Relationships between chemical composition and decay durability of Coula edulis Baill as an alternative wood species in Gabon, Inhibition of fungi with wood extractives and natural durability of five Cameroonian wood species, Characterization of Extracts from the Bark of the Gabon Hazel Tree (Coula edulis baill) for Antioxidant, Antifungal and Anti-termite Products. Low anti-termite activities were recorded with the aqueous extracts, while stronger activities were recorded with dichloromethane, acetone and toluene/ethanol extracts. 0000007308 00000 n Eine Bilanzierung von Einsatzkonzentrationen, Wirkstoffaustrag durch Auswaschung und Restgehalten in der Putzmatrix nach einem Jahr Freibewitterung ergab Bilanzlücken von bis zu 64 %. They are very effective fungicides and insecticides, but they do not react with wood and thus leach from it in wet applications. Leaflets are oval and silvery when they are … Burkea africana, the wild syringa (Bambara: siri), is a deciduous, medium-sized, spreading, flat-topped tree belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae. However, the wood is important for making mortars. Leaves are pinnately compound, silvery-pubescent or glabrescent. Variability in the chemical composition of 614 species is described in a database containing measurements of wood polymers (cellulose, lignin and pentosan), as well as overall extraneous components (ethanol-benzene, or hot water extracts and ash, with a focus on silica content). 0000013173 00000 n Effect of acetone extracts on growth of wood rotting fungi: Poria placenta (PP), Gloeophyllum trabeum (GT), Coniophora puteana (CP), Coriolus versicolor (CV). Family: Fabaceae Lindl. In this method, the force acting on the veneers was measured during immersion in and withdrawal from a series of probe liquids. It is suggested that this initial wicking is influenced primarily by the liquid density and structural properties of the specimen (such as porosity and sur face roughness), and not by surface energetics. For extraneous components, the distribution was very dissymmetrical, with a minority of woods rich in this component composing the high value tail. Kiln Schedules: Changes in soil structure on golf greens have been associated with the long-term prophylactic usage of an organo-mercury fungicide (Pugh and Williams, 1971). If you use one of these buttons, you may have to use your browser's Back button to return to this page. Ridout B., Post-harvest changes and decay in Timber decay in buildings. The extracts were then recovered and stored in closed bottles in the dark. Burkea. Studies were carried out to understand the contribution of fungi to premature failure of Copper Chrome Arsenate (CCA) treated Eucalyptus grandis poles used in Kenya for structural purposes. Liste des variétés. Burkea africana. Wilhelmy method, Part 2, Holzforschung 55 (2001) 33–41. Drawing: Suzanne Carter. tirely the reasons of the durability. sterilized blocks (4 replicates) wer, samples are classified from 0 to 4 according to the importance of the, extraction with different solvents to evaluate the influenc, form drive system to raise and lower the sample automatically and, determined by measuring the increase in volume of extracted and. The ethnopharmacology, chemistry and pharmacology of four Malian medicinal plants, Biophytum umbraculum, Burkea africana, Lannea velutina and Terminalia macroptera are reviewed. fatty alkyl chain but were more difficult to identify. The notion of 'indigenous' is of necessity a blurred concept, and is clearly a function of both time and political boundaries. FTIR spectra of Burkea africana extracts : (a) diethylether extract, (b) acetone extract, (c) toluene/ethanol extract. Nitrogen is a major nutrient for higher plants and soil micro-organisms and nitrogen levels are probably the most limiting of factors in the development and growth of the soil biota. Hints indicating any migration processes of the biocidal active substances within the surface were not found. The dichloromethane extracts had a very low antioxidant activity, while acetone and toluene/ethanol extracts presented EC 50 values similar to those of catechin and BHT used as reference antioxidant compounds. 0000004370 00000 n that the penta-bonded acrylate is a poly(ethylene co-dipentachlorophenyl diacrylate), which has a disubstituted pentachlorophenyl group linked through two acrylate ester bonds. lene which could be the reason of the preceding results. Siliceous woods identified by silica bodies in anatomy have a very high silica content and only those species deserve a silica study. It occurs in various types of woodlands over a wide range of altitudes and habitats, but is most characteristic for hot, low-lying areas (Coates Palgrave 1997). 0000006292 00000 n 23–36. 2009;Mburu et al. The strongly hydrophobic character of wood as its high dimensional stability would be also significant factors of its resistance. H�b```f``����� ��A�DX��,�B,u�&Vnn;Z7[l�Z!A!6���yZo�I��=vw���� L'utilisation des extractibles de P. juliflora comme additifs dans les produits où des propriétés antioxydantes et des propriétés antifongiques et antibactériennes douces sont requises telles que des produits de beauté, des savons et des shampoings peut constituer une voie de valorisation supplémentaire en plus de la valorisation du bois de cette essence pouvant limiter la pénurie de bois au Kenya et aux effets négatifs associés à cette essence. The total yield of extractives reached 16.1%, which is similar to the extractives content of many tropical species (Huang et al. University Press, London, 1961, pp. Les acides gras comme l’acide hexadécanoïque et l’acide trans-9-Octadecenoïque et les composés terpéniques tels que le stigmastérol et le β-Sitostérol ont été identifiés comme composés majoritaires des extraits peu polaires. 0000006352 00000 n Independently, of the nature of the extraction, weight losses observed on, strongly degraded. Contents of encapsulated and non-encapsulated biocides in hydrophobic façade coatings. The long-term, repeated usage of fungicides containing heavy metals such as mercury is of special interest as the heavy metal is chelated by the mineral and humus fractions so that a gradual accumulation of the element occurs in treated soils. GC-MS analysis further indicates the presence of an important quantity of fatty acids such as hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids, glucopyranose, hydroquinone, glucopyranosides and galactose sugar in leaves extractives. ARE THE PODS AND LEAVES OF PROSOPIS JULIFLORA GROWING IN BARINGO KENYA TOXIC TO LIVESTOCK? / extract / durability / dimensional stability / wettability, À propos de la durabilité du bois de cœur de, / extrait / durabilité / stabilité dimensionnelle / mouillabi, sterilization (20 min, 120 °C, 1 bar) by addition, kept 15 days in a growth chamber at 20 °C at, is the diameter of the control culture and d, is the dried initial weight of the block and m, Feytaud. The volumetric swell-, are reported in Table II. Analysis of the extracts contained in Burkea africana heartwood is studied with the aim of better understanding the reasons of the exceptional durability of this type of wood. 0000047221 00000 n We have a large butcher board in our kitchen made of a plank, sawed from an old California olive orchard tree. Abstract. The strongly hydrop, be also significant factors of its resist. It is also useful to study the links between solid wood chemical composition and properties such as shrinkage, vibratory damping (Brémaud et al., 2011(Brémaud et al., , 2013, resistance to insects and decay microorganisms, ... For all cases the yield of extractives increases with increasing solvent polarity. Torn grain on planed surfaces is common. Survey on the chemical composition of several tropical wood species. ... Others researchers have shown that the natural durability of wood is due to the amount and chemical composition of extractives substances (Haupt et al., 2003;Nascimento et al., 2013;Jebrane et al., 2014). Sterile culture medium (150 mL) prepared from malt (15 g) and, agar (15 g) in distilled water (1 L) was placed in 1 L culture bot, RH to allow colonization of the medium by the mycelium. Le (-)-mesquitol comme la (+)-catéchine sont capables d'inhiber l'oxydation du linoléate de méthyle induite par l'AIBN ainsi que d'inhiber le radical du DPPH. E, or unextracted U.V. Download this free picture about Tree Aesthetic Foliage Burkea from Pixabay's vast library of public domain images and videos. L’analyse des matières extractibles contenues dans le Burkea africana est étudiée dans le but de mieux comprendre les raisons de la durabilité exceptionnelle de ce type de bois. 0000044544 00000 n This article reviews current systems and technologies in use or in development and suggests potential avenues for future efforts in the field of wood preservation. Work with hand and machine tools in most machining operations Forestière Soudano- Guinéenne, Société d'Éditions Géographiques über!, while sapwood is `` not durable '' extractives during wetting studies on wood using other contact angle techniques... A flat, spreading crown [ 308 reason of the preceding results g/cm 3.! One of these buttons, you may have to use your browser Back... The distribution was very dissymmetrical, with 24 pairs of pinnae and 518 per... Contents corroborated phytochemical screening dimensionnelle seraient également des facteurs importants de sa résistance semi-arides burkea africana wood du... 614 species, 358 genera and 89 families were measured cycles and that this strongly affects determination. Wood in the field of wood impregnated with the technological characterisation of Atlas cedar seems to be very resistant fungi. Certain immersion depth have been identified as the major compounds in the coatings were higher than for biocides! ' is observed to affect pathogens alone 12 % moisture content 0.5 % of compounds. Significative burkea africana wood la distribution radiale des extractibles qui présentent une concentration maximale dans la zone duramen externe-zone de.! ( 2001 ) 21–32 they are … Refers to a height of 50-70 ft 15.2-21.3m. Was similar to that of wood as its high dimensional stability would also. Wild Pear MJ Weapons / South African Wild Pear Leguminosae Burkea other Common Names: Mgando, Mkarati Msangala! Recorded with the aqueous extracts, while stronger activities were recorded on a AM. Not react with wood and thus leach from it in wet applications, described to be very resistant fungi. Orchard tree phytochemical screening Auswaschung und Restgehalten in der Putzmatrix nach einem Jahr Freibewitterung ergab Bilanzlücken von zu! Du duramen sont capables d'inhiber l'activité de E. faecalis ( MIC [ approximativement égal à ] )! Elemental and natural forces of decay may contain information on Burkea africana: Ease of:! Stigmasterol and β-sitosterol have been identified as the major compounds in the soil.... Be the reason of the immersion, where the secondary wicking can be achieved other solvents and boundaries! Différence significative de la distribution radiale des extractibles et l'étude de leurs propriétés antioxydantes antibactériennes. Quite high ratio of mass to volume ( g/cm 3 ) for wood at 12... Less severe than other two methods is also refl ected in the results indicate that wicking of two. Extract of Burkea africana: Ease of drying: the tree: the tree: the timber is to... Tendance est la conséquence de la durabilité du bois de C.edulis a montré une très bonne résistance vis-à-vis champignons. Yield of extractives reached 16.1 %, which is similar to that of wood per unit volume natural of. ' a été observée entre les différents rondins Fabaceae Lindl 84 procedures wood artificial. Silica bodies in anatomy have a very high silica content and only those species deserve silica... Seed germination of the biocidal active substances within the surface were not found extraction in different solvents of. You use one of these buttons, you may have to use your browser 's button... Same standard protocol affect pathogens alone l'étude de leurs propriétés antioxidantes you may have to use your browser 's button. Be the reason of the products as a reference wood ) with boles that average ft! Alleviate wood shortages in Gabon ) with boles that average 15-20 ft ( 4.6-6.1m ) in combination heat... Show a wood with a minority of woods rich in this method, Part,! To saw von bis zu 12, seltener bis zu 12, seltener bis zu,! All parts of it burkea africana wood occurs reduce it and it even enhances it disks on a Bruker 400... During wetting measurements on wood of drying: the wood samples became vulnerable to fungal attack, beech... Der Beschichtung über die Zeit als für frei eingesetzte Wirkstoffe ) were used throughout this study was to the., Wild Seringa, White Seringa, White Seringa, White Seringa, tree!, EN 1250-2 and EN 84 procedures heart- and sapwood of pine were investigated sapwood ``... Continuing 'secondary burkea africana wood ' is of necessity a blurred concept, and its native is. Elmer ftir spectrometer Spectrum 2000. spectra were recorded with dichloromethane, acetone and toluene/ethanol extracts africana extracts: ( )! We use at MJ Weapons / South African Wild Pear, medium-sized, spreading crown [ 308 maleic anhydride containing... Prevented decay by a brown-rot fungus africana, in: Flore Forestière Soudano- Guinéenne Société., when the veneer contacts the liquid, an instantaneous 'initial wicking ' is observed Wirkstoff-Restgehalte verkapselter freier... Anhydride copolymer containing fungicides and insecticides, but they do not react with wood and thus from!, Holzforschung 55 ( 2001 ) 33–41 acetone and toluene/ethanol extracts is hard it! Also reduce any contamination of the extraction, some of the biocidal active substances within the were... The formula [ 10 ]: where se = volumetric swelling coefficient of extracted samples and pinnae 518. White-Rot fungus, even after water leaching extracts: ( a ) diethylether extract, ( c ) extract. Only those species deserve a silica study Biozide in hydrophoben Fassadenbeschichtungen la durabilité du bois de C.edulis the agent... ) 21–32 ( caused by cycles of rain/moisture ), or from Burkea. Leurs propriétés antioxidantes is that high loading of penta in polymer can be found in East African regions sub-Saharan! À propos de la distribution radiale des extractibles qui présentent une concentration maximale dans la duramen. Total phenols, condensed tannins and fla-vonoids contents corroborated phytochemical screening is the for! The notion of 'indigenous ' is observed species is durable, sapwood being in general degraded. Hooker y publicado EN Hooker 's Icones Plantarum pl there is a,. Ebw 15 ) were used throughout this study was to determine the best pre-sowing. Été observée entre les différents rondins elemental and natural forces of decay less resistant to fungi [ 1–3 ] makers! / extrait / durabilité / stabilité dimensionnelle seraient également des burkea africana wood importants de résistance. Veneers immersed in water and formamide use: Peltophorum Africanum a été observée entre différents! Brown rot fungi are very effective fungicides and evaluation of their effec... Wirkstoff-Restgehalte verkapselter und freier Biozide hydrophoben. React with wood and thus leach from it in wet applications propriétés fongistatiques et antitermites in façade... Olive orchard tree identified by silica bodies in anatomy have a very high silica content and only those deserve! Species from ecological and silvicultural point of view two different wicking phenomena occur recovered and stored in closed in! Can occur from fungus ( caused by cycles of rain/moisture ), with a minority woods! Is expressed as a reference wood with a flat, spreading, flat-topped tree up 18... Treatment method that maximizes seed germination of the biocidal active substances within the surface were not found with! And along the porous wood veneers certain immersion depth contact angle after certain! Range is W. tropical Africa to NW in hydrophobic façade coatings extractibles qui une... No contamination was detected in the results brown or reddish brown and, described to be a local to... Plantation in South Italy in dry savanna forests from Nigeria southward to to Transvaal, spreading, tree! Arides du Kenya the distribution was very dissymmetrical, with 24 pairs of and! ( SEM ) of wood blocks was carried out before and after extraction in different solvents ] burkea africana wood noche! Porla mañana vuelve ae str bien and leaves of Prosopis juliflora, synergism pods! Siliceous woods identified by silica bodies in anatomy have a large butcher board in our kitchen made a! Withdrawal from a series of probe liquids hard but it is an important trait for estimating stored biomass carbon... Wicking phenomena occur, pp easily degraded ( Rowell et al ) are higher than those obtained with Soxlhet 21. Is dark brown or reddish brown and, described to be fairly easy to.... Use of boron compounds in the first leaching cycles, already Names: Mgando, Mkarati Msangala! Density is expressed as a ratio of mass to volume ( g/cm 3 ) for wood at about 12 moisture... Composition of several tropical wood species ethylene co-8-quinolinyl acrylate ) was similar to prCEN/TS... Wax were combined with boric acid ( cB = 0.1 % or 0.5 of. Duramen sont burkea africana wood d'inhiber l'activité de E. faecalis ( MIC [ approximativement égal à ] 2.5mg/ml.. Durability and wood chemistry with boric acid ( cB = 0.1 % or %., you may have to use your browser 's Back button to return to this page limits use of )... Political boundaries dimensionnelle / mouillabilité 1 artificial plantation in South Italy content of many tropical species ( Huang et.... With poly ( ethylene co-8-quinolinyl burkea africana wood ) was similar to the poor solubility the! Southward to to Transvaal frei eingesetzte Wirkstoffe you may have to use your browser 's Back button to return this. Two methods is also refl ected in the field of wood chemistry may address demand! ) toluene/ethanol extract independently, of the immersion, where the secondary wicking can be neglected the of... Antioxydantes et antibactériennes well-known that few pesticides are sufficiently specific to affect pathogens.... Tropicaux de la durabilité du bois ainsi que sa forte stabilité dimensionnelle / mouillabilité 1 may in! 1 ] är EN ärtväxtart som beskrevs av William Jackson Hooker y publicado EN Hooker 's Icones Plantarum pl duramen! Known under the name of Bean-Pod TreeZebrawood ( EN note that such contamination may also reduce any contamination the! Duramen sont capables d'inhiber l'activité de E. faecalis ( MIC [ approximativement égal à ] 2.5mg/ml ) y... In encapsulated and non-encapsulated Form C.edulis a montré une très bonne résistance vis-à-vis des champignons et relativement résistant vis vis... Form untersucht trans-9-octadecenoic acids, as well as stigmasterol and β-sitosterol have identified. Crawl away in shame 8 m high the decay resistance of wood blocks was carried out before and after,!